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同性戀

同性戀,指在感情及 / 或肉體上戀慕同性別人士。戀慕同性的女性稱為女同性戀者(lesbian),男性則稱男同性戀者(gay,按粵語音譯俗稱「基」);亦有以「基」概稱男或女同性戀。

臨床及科學研究顯示,同性戀、或同性別吸引取向的成因是多種因素的,如環境和脾性都是重要元素。

不同的精神健康從業員對同性戀看法不一。自1952年起,《精神紊亂斷症及統計手冊》(The Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)[DSM],下稱《手冊》)成為精神健康問題診斷學權威讀本,從1952至1973年,該書一直將同性戀定義為心理問題。然而於1973年該書第二版第六冊時,卻改稱同性戀為正常行為,此改動由心理衛生專家Robert Spitzer所主導;然而至2001年,Spitzer指「再定向治療」(指求助者 / 病人自願擺脫不理想的同性吸引取向與行為,藉專業輔及 / 或宗教手段,發展其潛藏的異性戀傾向)能有效治療同性戀。[1]有多項研究支持其結[2]按:Robert Spitzer的說法,在去年有新的更正 ) )

值得留意的是,今天《手冊》確認,治療員可診斷病人為性向紊亂,處方心理治療。此外,由於有性向問題的青少年自殺率甚高,有急切必要在病人年紀較小時即進行治療,能有效阻止引向自的心理機制發展。[3]

就同性戀更深入分析的文章,可看下列:

 

參考資料

[1] Historic Gay Advocate Now Believes Change is Possible, National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, 2001: May.
http://www.narth.com/docs/spitzer3.html (accessed 3/18/10). ^

[2] National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) Scientific Advisory Committee (2009). What Research Shows: NARTH’s Response to the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Claims on Homosexuality. Journal of Human Sexuality, 1, 1-128.: cf. http://www.narth.com/docs/journalsummary.html (accessed 3/18/10) for a summary of this peer-reviewed monograph. ^

[3] Rekers GA, Oram KB. Child and adolescent therapy for precursors to adulthood homosexual tendencies. Chapter 7 in Julie Harren Hamilton and Philip J. Henry (Eds.), Handbook of Therapy for Unwanted Homosexual Attractions: A Guide for Treatment. Palm Beach, FL: Xulon Press, 2009, pages 247-320. ^

 

延伸閱讀

Bailey, J., Miller, J., Willerman, L. (1993) Maternally rated childhood gender nonconformity in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 22, 5: 461-469.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Akman, D. (1991) A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 15: 537-556.

Bradley, S., Zucker, K. (1997) Gender identity disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 34, 7: 872-880.

Byne, W., Parsons, B. (1993) Human sexual orientation: The biologic theories reappraised. Archives of General Psychiatry. 50: 228-239.

Finkelhor, D. (1984) Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. NY: The Free Press.

Fisher, S., Greenberg, R. (1996) Freud Scientifically Reappraised. NY: Wiley & Sons.

Pillard, R. (1988) Sexual orientation and mental disorder. Psychiatric Annals. 18, 1: 52-56.

Rekers, G et.al. (1983) "Family Correlates of Male Childhood Gender Disturbance,” Journal of Genetics and Psychology 142, No. 1: 31-42.Rekers, G and Swihart J (1989) "The Association of Gender Identity Disorder with Parental Separation,” Psychological Reports 65, No. 3, Vol. 2: 1272-74.

Ross, M.W. (Ed), (1983) "Parental and interpersonal relationships of transsexual and masculine and feminine homosexual men,” Journal of Homosexuality, Special Issue, Homosexuality & Social Sex Roles, volume 9, No. 1: 75-85.

Satinover, J. (1996) Homosexuality and the Politics of Truth, Grand Rapids, MI: Hamewith Books, pp. 87-88 and 221-228.

Steed, J.J. and Templer, D (2010) "Gay Men and Lesbian Women with Molestation History: Impact on Sexual Orientation and Experience of Pleasure,” The Open Psychology Journal, Vol. 3, 36-41.

Templer, D et.al., (2001) "Comparative Data of Childhood and Adolescence Molestation in Heterosexual and Homosexual Persons,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 30, No. 5, 535 – 541.

Wolfe, C. (Ed), (1999) Homosexuality and American Public Life, Washington DC: Spence Publishing Co., pp. 85-97.

(文章來自Facts About Youth-A project of the American College of Pediatricians, 2013. "Homosexuality”, 網絡連結:http://factsaboutyouth.com/posts/homosexuality


 

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